SlashDB is based on two levels of authentication and authorization.

  1. Access to the API (and GUI)
  2. Access to data


  1. Each request to the API has to be made on behalf of a certain SlashDB user. In above picture they are John, App1 and App2. These users can be authenticated by passing valid credentials using one of available methods: provide a cookie, basic authentication or API key.
  2. Each SlashDB user (pictured in blue) can be mapped to a database login (more on that in User Configuration section). As a result, every request from that user will execute queries in the database under privileges the assigned database user (db_user1, db_user2 or db_admin as pictured above in purple). Database permissions are effectively passed on to SlashDB user.

In above example we have 3 common scenarios:

  • John is visiting SlashDB API via a browser. He logs in using his SlashDB username and password. He is identified as John and his browser receives a cookie. The cookie is sent with each subsequent request. John's account in SlashDB has been configured to use db_user1 database login when making queries. Effectively John can SELECT or UPDATE data, as those are the privileges that were configured in the database.
  • A mobile application sends SlashDB credentials using Basic Authentication method. The credentials identifies the mobile application as SlashDB user App1, which uses database login db_user2 when connecting to the database. Effectively App1 can only SELECT data.
  • Another application utilizes an API key to authenticate, which is sent with every request. The application is recognized as SlashDB user App2, which uses database login db_admin. Effectively this application can SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT and DELETE data.


Out of the box SlashDB provides most common authentication mechanisms:

  • API Key
  • Basic Authentication
  • Cookie Session
  • Public (unauthenticated) access

Other methods can be added right to SlashDB using custom WSGI middlewares or by making SlashDB an endpoint behind a third party authentication system.


There are two types of api keys available in SlashDB:

  • single parameter (apikey)
  • two parameters (appid and apikey)

The API key identifies and authenticates request to access SlashDB on behalf of certain SlashDB user. The API key has to be sent either in header or in query string of each request.

The name of the header and query string argument can be changed in SlashDB ini file /etc/slashdb/slashdb.ini. More on that here.

The API key is configured in User Configuration.

Single parameter API key

Probably the easiest way to authenticate is by sending single parameter API key.

Request with API key in header - Access granted

curl -i 'http://localhost/db/Chinook2.json' \
-H 'apikey: q7afxhxmyetbbq0ufi4bus82gglmzr0u'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Request with API key in query string - Access granted

curl -i 'http://localhost/db/Chinook2.json?apikey=q7afxhxmyetbbq0ufi4bus82gglmzr0u'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Two parameters API key

SlashDB also allows a two parameters credentials in this authentication method - app id and api key. This may come handy when integrating with API management systems like Red Hat 3scale API Management. By default header and query string argument would be:

  • appid - identifies certain application
  • apikey - secret for the application

Request with API key in header - Access granted

curl -i 'http://localhost/db/Chinook2.json' \
-H 'appid: app1ABC' \
-H 'apikey: q7afxhxmyetbbq0ufi4bus82gglmzr0u'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Request with API key in query string - Access granted

curl -i 'http://localhost/db/Chinook2.json?appid=app1ABC&apikey=q7afxhxmyetbbq0ufi4bus82gglmzr0u'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Basic Authentication

SlashDB supports Basic Authentication simply add the header with encoded user name and password.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json' \
-H 'Authorization: Basic YWRtaW46YWRtaW4='

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

Cookies are mostly used by browsers for GUI. To receive correct Set-Cookie header in response we need to make a POST request with username and password to /login. We can send credentials either as a JSON or urlencoded form data.

Credentials sent as JSON

curl -i -X POST 'http://localhost/login' \
-H "Content-Type:application/json" \
-d '{"login": "admin", "password": "admin"}'

The response will be a 200 OK and will contain Set-Cookie

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Set-Cookie: auth_tkt=a34e5f0535fada973074a68ec5eb855b5a0af71fYWRtaW4%3D!userid_type:b64unicode; Max-Age=3600; Path=/; expires=Tue, 14-Nov-2017 15:01:03 GMT

Credentials sent as urlencoded form.

curl -i -X POST 'http://localhost/login' \
-H "Content-Type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded" \
-d "login=admin" -d "password=admin" -d "came_from=/db"

The response will be 302 with Set-Cookie header and location taken from came_from data field or header referrer (if came_from is not given).

HTTP/1.1 302 Found
Location: http://localhost/db
Set-Cookie: auth_tkt=a34e5f0535fada973074a68ec5eb855b5a0af71fYWRtaW4%3D!userid_type:b64unicode; Max-Age=3600; Path=/; expires=Tue, 14-Nov-2017 15:01:03 GMT

Making requests with a cookie

Having a cookie, you can use it for requests within the session

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json' \
-H 'Accept: application/json' \
-H 'Cookie: auth_tkt=c7e39bdd4e670d796e506ac5ddab8ba95a0af9b9YWRtaW4%3D!userid_type:b64unicode'

Ending cookie session

To end the session send a GET request to /logout. Then remove/invalidate the cookie in your application.

curl -i 'http://localhost/logout' \
-H 'Cookie: auth_tkt=c7e39bdd4e670d796e506ac5ddab8ba95a0af9b9YWRtaW4%3D!userid_type:b64unicode'

Authenticating proxy

URLs in SlashDB are unique references to data. As a result optionally we can integrate the API service with an authorization system that would decide if incoming request should be sent to SlashDB. Solutions like that are typically implemented using authenticating proxies in conjunction with single sign-on and entitlement systems. If you require this level of integration please contact us.

Public Access

For situations when we would like to give an open access to the API we can create/edit the SlashDB user "public".

Requests identified as "public" do not require any method of authentication. Consequently, requests, which do not contain any authentication credentials will be assigned the identity (and authorizations) of user public.

To disable public access, remove that user from SlashDB or limit his permissions in User Configuration


SlashDB users can be granted permissions to:

Personal Information

The very basic authorization is to the API (and GUI) and some of the account information.

A user who knows credentials and has not been granted any permissions is able to access only his own user configuration and change only some of those settings: password, API key, full name, email.

For example user john makes a GET request for his user information using API. Request is authenticated by passing john's ApiKey.

curl -i "https//localhost/userdef/john.json" \
-H "apikey: 3pewxln1nnrm3lcz04vuj0rmisveya6q"

or viewing it in GUI by clicking on user's name (john) in upper right corner and selecting settings from dropdown menu

to show with modal with user's information.


As described in the intro at the top of this document, access to data for each user is determined by database mappings.

By mapping SlashDB users to actual database logins:

  • we leverage security mechanisms which are built into databases (GRANT, GROUPS, ROLES etc.),
  • each SlashDB account can have different effective privileges on database objects (e.g. only SELECT),
  • we avoid maintenance of complicated logic of permissions to resources in the API.

These mappings are configured on the User Configuration screen.

Access to data via Data Discovery

Authenticated SlashDB user have access only to databases that were set in the user's database mappings and only those databases will be listed on the Data Discovery home page /db.


Let's give "mike" only read permission by mapping him to database login "ro_hr" that is granted only SELECT.

MySQL "ro_hr" login

SlashDB user "mike"

We can get data with no problem.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db/hr/departments.json' -H 'apikey: pgtw8mgdamjzx99m5mxf8sfeipwkdw0u'
HTTP/1.1 200 OK

But we can't create and we get explanation of the problem in header "Warning" and in the body of the response.

curl -i -X POST 'http://localhost/db/hr/departments.json' \
-H 'apikey: pgtw8mgdamjzx99m5mxf8sfeipwkdw0u' \
-d '{"dept_name": "New Dept", "dept_no": "d020"}'

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Warning: (_mysql_exceptions.OperationalError) (1142, "INSERT command denied to user 'ro_hr'@'pc140.home' for table 'departments'")

{"http_code": 404, "description": "(_mysql_exceptions.OperationalError) (1142, \"INSERT command denied to user 'ro_hr'@'pc140.home' for table 'departments'\")"}

Access to data via SQL Pass-Thru

Two levels of authorization have to be configured to execute query:

  1. The user must be allowed to execute the query. When we want to execute query Query Configuration we can define list of users allowed to execute SQL Pass-Thru query.

SlashDB Configurations

SlashDB contains database, user and SQL Pass-Thru query configurations. Typically modifying those is restricted to user "admin", but regular users can be given permission to access and modify those settings too. These are particularly useful if you need to create one or more power user with certain administrative privileges granted to them.

In Database Configuration we can:

  • allow users to view/edit specific database definition
  • allow users to connect/disconnect specific database

In User Configuration we can:

  • allow other users to view/edit the specific user configuration
  • allow the user to view list of databases, users, SQL Pass-Thru queries
  • allow the user to create new databases, users and SQL Pass-Thru queries

In Query Configuration we can:

  • allow users to view/edit the query configuration
  • allow users to run the SQL Pass-Thru query

Special accounts


User "admin" is a superuser of SlashDB and is not limited by any rules with regards to configuration. Still to access data the "admin" user has to be mapped to database logins just like a regular user does.


SlashDB treats unauthenticated requests as user "public" and we can set grants for that user as any other user using User Configuration.

For example let's give public user access to Chinook database.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json'

Requests that do not provide any authentication will identified as user public.
User public has only mapping for Chinook database thus we'll find only the Chinook on list of available databases.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json'

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    "Chinook": "/db/Chinook.json",
    "__href": "/db.json"

When we remove Database Mapping for Chinook we receive 404 Not Found.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json'

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Warning: No models for user public.

{"http_code": 404, "description": "No models for user public."}

And if we remove user public completely we'll get 403 Forbidden.

curl -i 'http://localhost/db.json'

HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
Warning: Access was denied to this resource. Please log in with your username/password or resend your request with a valid API key.

{"http_code": 403, "description": "Access was denied to this resource. Please log in with your username/password or resend your request with a valid API key."}

Failed Authentication

Whenever a request cannot be assigned to a certain SlashDB user or that user is not authorized to access the resource a HTTP 403 Forbidden response is returned.

  • 403 Forbidden
  • response header Warning contains error message
  • response body contains HTTP status code and description is the same format as request e.g. JSON
curl -i "https://localhost/userdef/admin.json"

HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden
Server: nginx/1.12.2
Date: Mon, 23 Sep 2019 08:56:41 GMT
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 159
Connection: keep-alive
Warning: Access was denied to this resource. Please log in with your username/password or resend your request with a valid API key.

{"http_code": 403, "description": "Access was denied to this resource. Please log in with your username/password or resend your request with a valid API key."}

More information about status codes can be found in sections about Client Errors and Server Errors.


HTTPS provides authentication of the web server and encryption of communication between client and server. It's strongly recommended to use it especially that it's easily configurable for SlashDB.

To enable HTTP Secure you will require a private key and a signed certificate and access to instance of SlashDB via SSH. For testing or development purposes only you may generate a self-signed certificate.

Creating self-signed SSL certificate

Run below command to create self signed key and certificate and save them in /etc/slashdb directory

sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 \
-keyout /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.key \
-out /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.crt
Configuring HTTPS in NGINX

Add NGINX directives listen, ssl_certificate and ssl_certificate_key to NGINX configuration file /etc/slashdb/nginx.conf.

server {
    listen 80;
    listen 443 ssl;
    ssl_certificate /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.key;

It's a good practice to redirect traffic from HTTP to HTTPS. To do so create additional:

  • server in NGINX config that returns 301 Moved Permanently that points to HTTPS URL
  • comment out listen 80 on server with HTTPS
server {
    listen 80;
    return 301 https://$host$request_uri;

server {
    #listen 80;
    listen 443 ssl;
    ssl_certificate /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/slashdb/nginx-selfsigned.key;

    location ~ /db*|/query* {
       uwsgi_pass              slashdb_app;
       include                 uwsgi_params;

NGINX server restart is needed to apply changes

sudo /etc/init.d/nginx restart`

It's also important to remember to allow inbound traffic on port 443 especially for Microsoft Azure or Amazon EC2

More detail about using instructions on enabling HTTPS can be found in this tutorial

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)

CORS mechanism allows to control which origin (domains) are accepted by SlashDB server and what HTTP methods and headers are exposed to those domains.

Those rules can be configured in SlashDB ini settings file /etc/slashdb/slashdb.ini in section [filter:cors]. By default SlashDB comes with free policy which allows traffic from any domain.

use = egg:wsgicors#middleware
# CORS available policies
# "free" policy
free_expose_headers=Set-Cookie, Warning

# CORS enabled policies

Please refer to wsgicors documentation for details on setting up CORS policies.

results matching ""

    No results matching ""